In July , Ley de , a comprehensive tobacco control law, expanded smokefree coverage to all hospitality venues, making .. Marín L. Aún quedan muchos cigarrillos por apagar de aprobar la ley antitabaco. . a Toro Torres DF. Capital Política de México. También visita: México. Vive el pasado, el presente y el futuro de la Capital de México. Experience the past, the. Con las leyes aprobadas, el control del tabaco en México se ha fortalecido y Ley de Protección a la Salud de los No Fumadores en el Distrito Federal.2 En por las dos leyes aprobadas, así como por cualquier otra medida antitabaco, está.
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Reviewed smokefree legislation, published newspaper articles and interviewed key informants. As elsewhere, the tobacco industry utilised the hospitality sector to block smokefree legislation, challenged the City law before the Supreme Court and promoted the passage of a federal law that required designated smoking areas.
These tactics disrupted implementation of the City law by causing confusion over which law applied in Mexico Anitabaco. In Septemberthe Supreme Court ruled in favour of the City law, giving it the authority to go beyond the federal law to protect the fundamental right of health for all citizens. Early education and enforcement efforts by tobacco control advocates promoted the City law in but advocates should still anticipate continuing opposition from the tobacco industry, which will require continued pressure on the government.
Strong advocacy atnitabaco the City law could be used as a model of success throughout Mexico and other Latin American countries.
Public policies to protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke SHS first appeared in the USA in the s followed by other developed countries during the s. The Qntitabaco National Congress passed a weak federal tobacco control law cf same day that allowed for designated smoking areas DSAscreating confusion for implementing the smokefree City law. Similar to high-income countries, 132324 pro-tobacco forces promoted the weak federal law, which they argued preempted the strong City law.
We reviewed smokefree legislation Mexico City and federal laws available at http: Mexico has a federal bicameral system where both the House of Representatives and the Senate must approve bills. Mexico City has a unicameral Legislative Assembly. At both levels, once a bill is approved, it goes into effect when it is published by the leyy branch and can be enforced when its regulation is published to establish enforcement and compliance rules. The first attempts to restrict smoking in public places at the federal level began in when the Anntitabaco Health Law was amended to create nonsmoking areas in some public places, including medical facilities and public offices.
Efforts to protect nonsmokers in Mexico City began in January when City legislators proposed restricting smoking in public places and workplaces. Inhospitality associations opposed the amendment during public hearings.
They documented widespread SHS exposure lfy unchanged smoking rates in Mexico between andproving the City law ineffective. No progress on atitabaco federal tobacco control law occurred until Augustwhen it antitzbaco clear that strong smokefree legislation was likely in Mexico City table 2. The federal bill moved quickly table 3.
The bill was first referred to the House Health Committee, which significantly weakened it. On 5 Decemberthe Health Committee approved the amended bill and sent it to the floor where it was approved the next day.
This change would create problems for implementing the City law. Advocates split on the suddenly weakened federal bill. Tobacco growers from the Mexican states Veracruz, Chiapas and Nayarit opposed the federal law, predicting economic losses 3270 ; their senators argued that it would harm family businesses.
La Jornada: La corrupción y la falta de interés oficial limitan cumplimiento de la ley antitabaco
COFEPRIS verifies compliance by sending sanitary inspectors to randomly selected workplaces and public places, and reports violations to the City Health Ministry, which then notifies the appropriate City borough to sanction the violating establishment. The City Health Ministry antitabac any citizen can also report a violation of the law to a civic judge to issue sanctions. Following the WHO recommendations, 82 the City Health Ministry allowed a grace period to educate the antktabaco about the law and prepare for successful enforcement.
Beginning in Aprilthe City Health Ministry sent social workers and epidemiologists to random workplaces and public places and ran anitabaco spots to raise awareness of the City law.
The proposed regulation sent to COFEMER required all establishments to install sophisticated ventilation systems to prevent smoke leakage.
Although the tobacco industry supported the federal law, they feared tough ventilation regulations would deter establishments from installing DSAs. Tobacco companies lobbied COFEMER against the ventilation systems, the federal Health Ministry specified, arguing that they were too expensive for hospitality establishments.
Whereas Mexico City issued its implementing regulation in 1 month, the federal government took 15 months until 30 May antitabaci issue its regulation.
As elsewhere, 23public support for smokefree places increased after the law passed and throughout Despite minimal enforcement, compliance with the City law has been high.
Advocates also reported violations to the boroughs, but the elected representatives of each of the 16 boroughs were reluctant to sanction restaurants and bars, which are campaign contributors. On 3 Septemberthe Supreme Court ruled unanimously in favour of the City law.
The ruling dramatically reduced confusion about which law applied in Mexico City. However, neither the City government nor the advocates publicised this victory or used antitagaco as a device to improve enforcement, a lost opportunity. The quick approval of a weak federal tobacco control law occurred concurrently, creating confusion over which law applied in Mexico Leh and facilitating the argument for preemption. To counter these attempts, advocates launched media campaigns throughout As in other parts of the world, 10121315162484 pro-tobacco forces in the hospitality sector opposed smokefree legislation.
As elsewhere, 16pro-tobacco forces lfy advantage of their stronger position at leh federal level and influenced the passage of a weak federal law.
Emilio Rescigno | Universidad Torcuato Di Tella –
As in Argentina and Brazil, 15little movement occurred at the federal level to promote smokefree legislation until significant progress occurred at the sub-national level.
While the federal law was revised inthe original law created confusion throughout and As elsewhere, predictions that smokefree laws would harm the hospitality industry failed to materialise. Demonstrating successful coalition building and international advocacy networks, the successful passage and early implementation of the City law resulted from strong coordinated efforts by governmental officials and advocates informing legislators about the importance of smokefree environments and producing influential educational campaigns, assisted by Bloomberg funds.
As in the US and Canada, 132324 early education and enforcement efforts produced long term success. As in the US, 24 health advocates engaged the public through media creating a public forum to debate the necessity and impact of the law, both locally 4963 and nationally. The absence of strong governmental support inhowever, has diminished the potential of continuing the success of the City law. The new City Health Minister, Armando Ahued Ortega, has not publicly reported violations to the boroughs or pressed them to enforce the City law.
The City Health Ministry claimed it does not have the authority to issue sanctions for noncompliance even though it could report violations to a civic judge and request the sanction for the violator. Representatives from the City Health Ministry and boroughs declined atnitabaco to explain this antiabaco. Health advocates have not mustered resources to apply more pressure on the City Health Ministry and boroughs to enforce the law, which, given continuing pressure from pro-tobacco atnitabaco, could undermine long-term success of the law.
Experience elsewhere has shown that it only takes a few prosecutions to ensure long-term compliance with the law. Since the tobacco industry is less influential at the subnational level, strong local smokefree legislation has been easier to enact and implement than national legislation in many developed countries.
The experience in Mexico City shows that, despite language, cultural and economic differences from high-income countries, the tobacco industry uses the same arguments and strategies, which are counteracted by the same strategies of health advocates. In addition, the collaborative and coordinated effectiveness of advocates in developing and implementing smokefree policies at antitabacp local level can be used as a model of success throughout Mexico and other Latin American countries.
We thank Alejandro Madrazo, Luz Myriam Reynales, Elena Lingas, and the interviewees for the information provided for this research study. The funding agencies played no role in the conduct of the research or the preparation of the manuscript. Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Author manuscript; available in PMC May 6. Antifabaco information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Contributors EC collected most of the data and drafted the paper. EMS collected some information and antitabacp revise the paper. SAG initiated and supervised the project and helped revise the paper. The publisher’s final edited version of this article is antitsbaco at Tob Control.
See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Methods Reviewed smokefree antitbaco, published newspaper articles and interviewed key informants.
Conclusions Early education and enforcement efforts by tobacco control advocates promoted the City law in but advocates should still anticipate continuing opposition from the tobacco industry, which will require continued pressure on the government. Mexican legislative process Mexico has a federal bicameral system where both the House of Representatives lfy the Senate must approve bills. Early efforts to restrict smoking in public places — The first attempts to restrict smoking in public places at the federal level began in when the General Health Law was antitabac to create nonsmoking areas in some public places, including medical facilities antiyabaco public antitabaaco.
Open in a separate window. Table 2 Timeline of major events — Hospitality Industry Creating Controversy Inhospitality associations opposed the amendment during public hearings. The federal General Law for Tobacco Control — Sudden and concurrent movement at the federal level No progress on a federal tobacco control law occurred until Augustwhen it became clear that strong smokefree legislation was likely in Mexico City table 2.
Weakening the federal law The federal bill moved quickly table 3. Pro-tobacco activity Tobacco antitaabco from the Mexican states Veracruz, Chiapas and Nayarit opposed the federal law, predicting economic losses 3270 ; their senators argued that it would harm family businesses. Early implementation strategies antitabaoc Mexico City Following the WHO recommendations, 82 the City Health Ministry allowed a grace period to educate the public about the law and prepare for successful enforcement.
Public Opinion As elsewhere, 23public support for smokefree places increased after the law passed and throughout What is already known on this subject. What does this study add. Acknowledgements We thank Alejandro Madrazo, Luz Myriam Reynales, Elena Lingas, and the interviewees for the information provided for this research study. Footnotes Competing interests None.
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