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The two-part Introduction to Java programming tutorial is meant for software developers who are new to Java technology. Work through both parts to get up and running with uow programming OOP and real-world application development using the Java language and platform.
This first part is a step-by-step introduction to OOP using the Java language. After you’re introduced to your development environment’s components, hoow begin learning basic Java syntax hands-on. Programming examples in Part 2 build on the Person object that you begin developing in Part 1. When you finish Part 1, you’ll be familiar with basic Java language syntax and able to write simple Java programs.
Follow up with ” Introduction to Java programming, Part 2: Constructs for real-world applications ” to build on this foundation. This tutorial is for software developers who are not yet experienced with Java code or the Java platform. The tutorial includes an overview of OOP concepts. To complete the exercises in this tutorial, you will install and set up a development environment consisting of:.
Java technology is used to develop applications for a wide range of environments, from consumer devices to heterogeneous enterprise systems. In this section, get a high-level view of the Java platform and its components. By default, you see three panes in the Javadoc. The top-left pane shows all of the packages in the API, and the bottom-left pane shows the classes in each package.
The main pane to the right shows details for the currently selected package or class. For example, if you click the java. Like any programming language, the Java language has its own structure, syntax rules, and programming paradigm. The Java language’s programming paradigm is based on the concept of OOP, which the language’s features support. The Java language is a C-language derivative, so its syntax rules look much like C’s.
Structurally, the Java language starts with packages. A package is the Java language’s namespace mechanism. Within packages are classes, and within classes are methods, variables, constants, and more. You learn about the parts of the Java language in this tutorial. When you program for the Java platform, you write source code in. The compiler checks your code against the language’s syntax rules, then writes out bytecode in.
Bytecode is a set of instructions targeted to run on a Java virtual machine JVM. In adding this level of abstraction, the Java compiler differs from other language compilers, which write out instructions suitable for the CPU chipset the program will run on. At runtime, the JVM reads and interprets. The difference is that the JVM is a piece of software written specifically for a particular platform. The JVM is the heart of the Java language’s “write-once, run-anywhere” principle.
Your code can run on any chipset for which a suitable JVM implementation is available. JVMs are available for major platforms like Linux and Windows, and subsets of the Java language have been implemented in JVMs for mobile phones and hobbyist chips. Rather than forcing you to keep up with memory allocation or use a third-party library to do sothe Java platform provides memory management out of the box.
When your Java application creates an object instance at runtime, the JVM automatically allocates memory space for that object from the heap — a pool of memory set aside for your program to use. The Java garbage collector runs in the background, keeping track of which objects the application no longer needs and reclaiming memory from them. This approach to memory handling is called implicit memory management because it doesn’t require you to write any memory-handling code. Garbage collection is one of the essential features of Java platform performance.
When you download a Java Development Kit JDKyou get — in addition to the compiler and other tools — a complete class library of prebuilt utilities that help you accomplish most common application-development tasks. The JRE is available for multiple platforms. You can freely redistribute the JRE with your applications, according to the terms of the JRE license, to give the application’s users a platform on which to run your software. In this section, you’ll download and install the JDK and the current release of the Eclipse IDE, and you’ll set up your Eclipse development environment.
If you already have the JDK and Eclipse IDE installed, you might want to skip to the ” Getting started with Eclipse ” section or to the one after that, ” Object-oriented programming concepts. Although you can use these tools to develop your applications, most developers appreciate the additional functionality, task management, and visual interface of an IDE.
Eclipse is a popular open source IDE for Java development. Eclipse handles basic tasks, such as code compilation and debugging, so that you can focus on writing and testing code.
In addition, you can use Eclipse to organize source code files into projects, compile and test those projects, and store project files in any number of source repositories. If you download one of the Eclipse bundles, it will come with the JDK already. You now have a Java environment on your computer.
Next, you’ll install the Eclipse IDE. View image at full size. Eclipse is now set up and ready for debitrl to create projects, and compile and run Java code.
The too section familiarizes you with Eclipse. Eclipse is more than an IDE; it’s an entire development ecosystem. This section is a brief hands-on introduction to using Eclipse for Java development. The primary unit of organization in Eclipse is the workspace. A workspace contains all of your projects.
A perspective is a way of looking at each project hence the nameand within a perspective are one or more views. Figure 2 shows the Java perspective, which is the default perspective for Eclipse. You see this perspective when you start Eclipse. The Java perspective contains the tools that you need to begin writing Java applications.
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Each tabbed window shown in Figure 2 is a view for the Java perspective. Package Explorer and Outline are two particularly useful views. The Eclipse environment is highly configurable.
Each view is dockable, so you can move it around in the Java perspective and place it where you want it. For now, though, stick with the default perspective and view setup.
You have now created a new Eclipse Java project and source folder. Your development environment is ready for action. However, an understanding of the OOP paradigm — covered in this tutorial’s next section — is essential. The Java language is mostly object oriented. This section is an introduction to OOP language concepts, using structured programming as a point of contrast.
Object-oriented languages follow a different programming pattern from structured programming languages like C and COBOL. The structured-programming paradigm is highly data oriented: You have data structures, and then program instructions act on that data. Object-oriented languages such as the Java language combine data and program instructions into objects. An object is a self-contained entity that contains attributes and behavior, and nothing more. Instead of having a data structure with fields attributes and passing that structure around to all of the program logic that acts on it behaviorin an object-oriented language, data and program logic are combined.
This combination can occur at vastly different levels of granularity, from fine-grained objects such as a Numberto coarse-grained objects, such as a FundsTransfer service in a large banking application. A parent object is one that serves as the structural basis for deriving more-complex child objects. A child object looks like its parent but is more specialized. With the object-oriented paradigm, you can reuse the common attributes and behavior of the parent object, adding to its child objects attributes and behavior that differ.
Objects talk to other objects by sending messages method callsin Java parlance. Furthermore, in an object-oriented application, program code coordinates go activities among objects to perform tasks within the progra of the specific application domain.
In essence, an object is a discrete entity that has only the necessary dependencies on other objects to perform its tasks.
This first example is based on a common application-development scenario: You know from the definition of an object that an object has two primary elements: Here’s how these elements apply to the Person object. As a rule of thumb, think of the attributes of an object as nouns and behavior as verbs.
You can probably think of more and you can always add more attributes laterbut this list is a good start. An actual person can do all sorts of things, but object behaviors usually relate to application context of some kind.
In a business-application context, for instance, you might want to ask your Person object, “What is your body mass index BMI? More-complex logic can be hidden inside of the Person object, but for now, suppose that Person has the following behavior:.
State is an important concept in OOP. An object’s state is represented at any moment in time by the values of its attributes. In the case of Personits state is defined by attributes such as name, age, height, and weight.
If you wanted to present a list of several of those attributes, you might do so by using a String class, which you’ll learn more about later. Using the concepts of state and string together, you can say to Person”Tell me all about you by giving me a listing or String of your attributes. If you come from a structured-programming background, the OOP value proposition might not be clear yet. After all, the attributes of a person and any logic to retrieve and convert those values can be written in C or COBOL.